A project I was working on required adding a default index.html file into each subdirectory in a directory. This ensured an appropriate response was given when someone browsed to any directory on the web server. The command I came up with to copy a file into all subdirectories was:
ls -d */ | xargs -n 1 cp -i index.html
The command breaks down like this. Where Index.html is the file that will be copied. The ‘ls -d */’ command retrieves a list of directories in the current directory. The list is piped ‘|’ into xargs to execute the copying process. Unfortunately this command was not as robust as I was hoping. It doesn’t work with directories that have spaces in the name. It also only copies the file into the immediate subdirectories. Noting those issues I refined the command. The resulting modified command will copy a file into all subdirectories recursively.
ls -R | grep ":" | sed "s/^.://" | sed "s/://" | xargs -n 1 cp -n index.html
This command also copies the index.html file. ‘ls -R’ retrieves a list of all files and directories recursively from the current folder. The ‘grep “:”‘ portion locates all the directories since they each end with a colon “:”. Then the ‘sed “s/^.://”‘ section removes the reference to the current directory “.” in the returned directory list. The ‘sed “s/^.://”‘ portion cleans off the trailing colons “:” from each directory entry. The resulting cleaned list of directories is piped into the xargs command to copy the file into each one.
So give it a go, it could save you a bit of time and hassle now that you can copy a file into all subdirectories.
I created this post using these resources:
How to copy a file to multiple directories using the gnu cp command
Now you’ve learned to recursively copy a file into all subdirectories, why not read this post. Learn how to recursively delete specific files using the command line.
I had made a partition backup of a machine using Clonezilla and wanted to restore it. The restore was successful but because I had only restored the partitions rather than the full disk Grub was not installed in the MBR. Without Grub in the MBR the system failed to boot.
I mounted the new filesystem to /mnt while still using the live Clonezilla disk that I had used for the backup. Then I chrooted using the following command
then while in the chroot I attempted to reinstall grub, and since this was a Cloudlinux/Centos install I performed
But grub-install complained that it couldn’t find /dev/sda or that /dev/sda was not a valid block device. So then hunting around on the internet for a little bit I came across this article which showed basically how to ensure that your current live
filesystems are accessible inside of your current chroot.
So I ran the following commands outside of the chroot before entering it again.
mount --bind /proc /mnt/proc
mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
mount --bind /sys /mnt/sys
Then I chrooted to /mnt again and ran my grub-install command and all was well. The machine booted perfectly after that.
If you need to repartition or reformat a drive. Or resize partitions and check the health of your drive for Linux or Windows based machines give Parted Magic a try. It takes your favorite open source tools and puts them in an easy to use bootable linux CD. It has become my goto tool for all hard drive management tasks.